Friday, August 20, 2010
Needs are the features that propel we human beings towards action,and enable us to work towards a desired aim. Need makes purposes and directions to our life. If the basic needs are achieved our thrust go beyond our "self",this is the crux of an article I have read recently. That is, a social environment is very inevitable for his growth,such a social environment means democracy to human beings . But this is not the only truth.,this is the tip of the iceberg, democracy itself is not a goal.It is only a means,ultimate aim is the freedom, which is free from the historical inevitability. So I would say that we are not satisfied with any formal systems of any kind of organization. Rather than it is a concept of ideas which is a synthesis of both material and ideas and can say perceptual thinking of the real material and the innate ideas of men, his history.
We have seen that democracy is only a means to the freedom ,human freedom. So it is imperative to know what is democracy , its different forms, and its political positions in the new epoch of globalization and neo- liberalism. Democracies are of different types , but underline principle of democracy in any type is freedom , and it is the sole aim of the concept of democracy. As any concepts it has dual expressions, one for the idea for the theory and other for the material, that is its organizational aspect. So democracy has two main aspects of freedom, that is being ruled and in turn ruling and the fundamental principle , its soul is liberty,and the constitutional guarantee of the liberty is the pre-requisite of any democratic form. Liberty also has a factor, that is to govern and also governing in turn, here the decisions of the majority must be final and it must constitute the justice.
Here we are going to exam two types of democracies,one is deliberative democracy,and the other is radical democracy.In deliberative democracy law and its practices should be based on reasons, that all the citizens can accept. Radical democracy challenges the neo liberal and neo conservative concept of democracy. It is not only accepting differences,dissents,and antagonisms.,but is dependent on them. By building democracy around differences and dissents,the oppressive relations of power that exist in society are able to come to the forefront so that they can be challenged.,.Because of radical democracy focus in differences and challenging oppressions power relations it has been seen as conducive to the post colonial theory and decolonization era .
CRITICISM REGARDING LIBERAL DEMOCRACY
Liberal democracy is merely a decorated one over an oligarchy in general. It is teased as capitalistic dictatorship. It is a democracy where politicians fight only for the rights of capitalistic class and hence it is undemocratic,because it must not constitute justice to the majority citizens.More over democracy is a political form of govt where governing power is derived from the people either by direct referendum or by means of elected representation of the people and the equality and freedom are the two characteristic of democracy,that is , all citizens are equal before law, equal access to power and freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by the constitution. If any democracy is not carefully legislated through the balance—separation of power is not a balanced system , rule could accumulate power and become harmful to the democracy, the organization itself. The majority rule is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy. But without the responsible govt or constitutional protection of individual liberty from democratic power,it is possible for the dissenting individuals to be oppressed by the tyranny of the majority. So essential process in representative democracy is competitive elections that are fair both substantially and procedurally.Besides freedom of political expression ,freedom of speech and freedom of press are essential to the citizens .Then only citizens be informed and able to vote in their interest.Democracy is based on philosophical principles of equal rights.Many people use the democracy for liberal democracy which may include political pluralism;equality before the law,right to petition elected officials for redressal of grievances,civil liberties,human rights,and elements of civil society outside the government.
Twentieth century democracy has been called the last form of government . That century witnessed wars first and second,many revolutions ,decolonization,emergence of new nation states, recolonization in disguised forms.Up to 1920,democracy flourished. But the great depressions in thirties brought disillusionment. Strong mass rule or dictatorship,fascism,was witnessed in this era.Decolonization was followed by 2nd world war.Thus so many nation states emerged and they aimed welfare state.In 1950 and 60s economic growth was also high. Later growth declined in the state control led economies. By the Nineties ,.Soviet Union and the other communist nations collapsed politically.
Our India is maintaining parliamentary democracy .As you know,there are criticisms for parliamentary democratic ways also.Parliamentary elections are an opportunity to citizens of the country get every few years to decide who among the ruling classes will misrepresent them in parliament.,it is a form of plutocracy. If my memory is correct.it is opined by Marx himself.Similarly other non Marxists says democratic socialism was a dishonest farce model of democracy used to keep the masses from realizing that their will is irrelevant in the political process of making socialism. This is the comment from non Marxists to the Marxist regimes that was collapsed in the nineties of the 20th century.
WHAT IS SOCIAL DEMOCRACY
In one way our co operatives are constituted as per social democracy concepts. The social democratic concepts of socialism is that of a set of political and ethical values such as unconditional support for parliamentary democracy. The chief goal of modern social democracy is to reform capitalism to align it with the ethical ideals of social democracy. While maintaining the capitalistic mode of production,then creating an alternative socialist economic system. Thus social democracy supports gradualism.,through gradual democratic reforms to capitalistic economy it will eventually succeed in creating a socialistic economy and rejects forcible imposition of socialism through revolutionary means. Its gradualism has resulted in various criticism from far left groups including communists , of accusing social democracy as a means to secure workers rights.Social democracy rejects dictatorship of any sort claiming the gradualist democratic reforms improve the rights of the working classes. Since the rise in the popularity of neo liberalism instead of gradual evolution of capitalism to socialism, began to support welfare state capitalism.
After the world war two , a new socialistic international organization was found in 1951.This international denounced both capitalism and Bolshevism. Socialist international slandered the Communist international and accused communism as an instrument of new imperialism.Wherever it has achieved power it has destroyed freedom or the chance to going to freedom. It is based on militant bureaucracy and the terrorist police .By producing glaring contrast of wealth and privilege, it has created a new class society,forced labour place an important part in its economic organization.The socialist international affirms the following principles, first freedom -not only individual liberty but also freedom from discrimination and freedom from dependence on either the owners of the means of production or the holders of abusive political power.The second,equality and social justice not only before the law but also economic and socio-cultural equality as well. And equal opportunities for all including those with physical,mental,or social disabilities. and thirdly solidarity,unity and sense of compassion of victims of injustice and inequalities..These are much similar and identical to cooperative theory and practice..
CRITICISM ON SOCIAL DEMOCRACY AND THIRD WAY OF IDEOLOGY.
The third way of ideology that is of social democracy and socialist international are also invites criticism. The adoption of the third way ideology has caused too centrist and even that movement became so center-right, and it was became difficult for political parties in the developed world to win electorate on a distinctively left wing platforms, now that the electorate are increasingly middle class, aspirational,and consumerist. For example, in Britain, in 1997, the labour party govt came to power, continued the reforms that Madame Thatcher started in 1980s, selling out nationalized industries and the income gap between the rich and the poor grew. Thus the development of new social democratic policies in this environment is the subject of wide ranging debate within the `left` and `center-left.`
In general, contemporary social democracy support a mixed economy consisting private and public owned enterprises and existing system of social security. Govt bodies that regulate private enterprises in the interest of workers and consumer ,ensuing labour rights ,consumer protection and fair market competition, secular and socially progressive policy, foreign policy supporting the promotion of democracy, protection of human rights and effective multilateral-ism, advocates of social justice,civil liberties and civil rights.
So in this twenty first century, polemical discussions are going on regarding the validity of scientific socialist organizations we all people believed once..And by the collapse of socialist regimes it is seemed that the class rule of the labours' was a farce and it was the way to the state capitalism and a police state or totalitarian and we have not found any genuine path for democracy ,than a class state of labours where the civil society and the non-party mass has any say substantially,or procedurally,and was a dishonest system,used to keep the masses from realizing that their will is irrelevant in the political process.,and if any thing was enjoyed , it is due to the mercy of the ruling party, and the prorogation of their leaders. It negated the power of the modern civil society and spoiled the essence of a humanized society of the progressives dreams, instead medieval rubbishness was the style of governance,and Bolshevism was nothing but Blanquism,and was a State Religion?
CONCLUSION,......THE HUMAN GROWTH
We have started the talk from needs and now we are going to the concept growth. By now we have found the variant philosophical positions of the sociological development, the humanity passed so far. Growth is the deepening of knowledge ,combined with our actions where we are able to use our full potential as human beings. The need to go beyond self and need for growth are interconnected which are the fulfilling needs of normal human beings like us.We ought to think in a society that I am dynamic and therefore I am constantly growing and I need situations that foment my growth. The need for the growth and the need to go beyond self defines my uniqueness and set me apart from the crowd.. That is, fulfilling needs require stretch. Many of us therefore lead our life meeting basic needs but not meet fulfilling needs.We need some aspects of our life to be predictable,need variety, need to feel important,need to relate either to self or to some one else.These are the basic needs of an individual. The second type of need is going beyond our call. These needs are met when I satisfy my basic needs and aspire for the higher reaches of my existence.Generally the basic assumption is that only when we grow then only we obtain the capability to self enquire. We need to grow so that we create possibilities. Human life resembles a dialogue in the sense that with the age and experience our views concerning persons and things undergo a gradual change like the interlocutors in the course of a lively and fruitful conversation. This involuntary and necessary change in our outlook on life and the world is the very tissue of experience. That is why Hegel when comparing the evolution of consciousness with that of a philosophical conversation has given it the name of dialectic.